For approximately 40 years, unprotected or improperly protected penetrations have presented a subject of much concern to the fire-protection community. The arriving firefighters discovered several fires had broken out in five remote locations, filling many different areas of the building with smoke. According to the National Fire Protection Association's report on the fire, unprotected vertical and horizontal penetrations provided one of the major contributing causes of the rapid, erratic spread of smoke and fire. These openings allowed the smoke to spread beyond the electrical rooms and into occupied floors. Numerous fires similar to this one have emphasized the need for fire stopping the penetrations made by electrical installations. As a result of these fires, the respective committees developed requirements for both the building code and National Electrical Code NEC.
Pipe penetration sealing – fire collars or intumescent pipe wraps? - Quelfire
The electric utility will have an approved method and material to seal ducts in all new, altered or retro-fitted cable installations. The picture opposite shows unsealed electrical ducting and void openings located at a waste water treatment WTW plant — the open cable ducts undermine the purpose of the nearby fire door and should be sealed using fire rated cable duct seals. Penetration Seals — the integrity and insulation protection provided by the fire rated duct sealant will ensure up to 4 hours fire resistance in ducts. The seals can be customised to suit fire rated sealing applications including substation ducts, partitions, walls, floors, and construction systems including MV-HV switch rooms and transformer grids. Duct seals suitable for LV-HV power cables in single, trefoil or multiple configurations, including 11kV Triplex and 33kV high voltages. Provides advanced and assured sealing against water and gas for cable ducts, bore holes and openings.
Fire Stopping: What Every Contractor Needs to Know
Typically, this is covered by installing either intumescent pipe collars or intumescent wraps around the pipes where they go through the fire rated floors and walls. These systems should be tested to BSEN Both intumescent pipe collars or fire collars and intumescent pipe wraps work on the same principle; in the event of a fire, when exposed to heat, the intumescent material expands crushing the plastic pipe as it softens and plugs the hole. The fire seal created by the activated intumescent material prevents the fire and smoke spreading to the adjoining compartment.
Penetration sealing systems are a fundamental requirement of the fire safety design in buildings. Building Regulations Approved Documents and LPCB Design Guide recognise that the quality of the installation of fire stopping and penetration sealing is crucial to the performance of any fire stop seal. These systems provide cost-effective solutions and compliance with current legislation. Effective penetration sealing prevents the passage of smoke, toxic gasses and fire through gaps around services in walls, partitions and floors as well as enhancing acoustic performance and air sealing properties. Fire barriers systems are slabs of high density rock wool with a white endothermic, ablative coating designed to stop the spread of fire through openings in fire resistant walls or floors.